Reasoning and decision making

Research in decision making frequently assumes that judgments and decision are based on the attributes of the decision options and the importance the decision maker assigns them. However, during the decision process people frequently retrieve similar instances or decision situations that they have previously encountered from memory — so called exemplars. I am interested in understanding how these memories influence the decision process.

In diagnostic reasoning a decision maker has to find the best possible explanation for a set of observed symptoms. Decision options are usually predefined and the information is presented sequentially. Recent research has shown that in such situations, diagnosticians try to come up with a coherent interpretation of the presented symptom information. In my research, I am interested in how memory processes shape diagnostic decisions.

Relevant publications

Klichowicz, A., Scholz, A., Strehlau, S., & Krems, J. F. (2016). Differentiating between encoding and processing during sequential diagnostic reasoning: An eye-tracking study. In A. Papafragou, D. Grodner, D. Mirman, D., & J.C. Trueswell, J.C. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 129-134). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Rebitschek, F. G., Bocklisch, F., Scholz, A., Krems, J. F. & Jahn G. (2015). Biased processing of ambiguous symptoms favors the initially leading hypothesis in sequential diagnostic reasoning. Experimental Psychology, 62, 287-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1618-3169/a000298

Scholz, A., Krems, J. F., & Jahn, G. (2017). Watching diagnoses develop: Eye movements reveal symptom processing during diagnostic reasoning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24, 1398-1412. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13423-017-1294-8

Scholz, A., von Helversen, B., & Rieskamp, J. (2015). Eye movements reveal memory processes during similarity- and rule-based decision making. Cognition, 136, 228–246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2014.11.019